In this lesson, we will first examine the pectoral region. This region is of clinical importance in the female because of the mammary gland and its implication in cancer.

Second we will examine superficial nerves and vessels of the upper limb in preparation for its study.

As usual, compare the surface anatomy with the skeletal background. In the figures below, we will compare the male and female surface anatomy with the skeleton. Then we will examine the deeper structures in this area.

Surface Anatomy

  • 1. clavicle
  • 2. jugular notch
  • 3. manubrium of sternum
  • 4. sternal angle (2nd costal cartilage)
  • 5. body of sternum
  • 6. xiphoid process of sternum
  • 7. nipple (4th intercostal space)
  • 8. ribs of pectoral region
male pectoral region anterior upper skeleton female pectoral region

Mammary Gland

Table of Contents for Upper Limb & Back