The Stomach

In the living and in the upright posture, the stomach is usually J-shaped. The lowest part of the body can even extend into the greater pelvis. The pylorus lies at the level of the lower border of of the body of the L1 vertebra.

The parts of the stomach that you should identify are:
  1. connection to the esophagus E
  2. cardiac notch CN
  3. fundus F
  4. body B
  5. angular notch AN
  6. pyloric antrum Py
  7. area of pyloric sphincter PS
  8. 1st part of the duodenum D
  9. lesser curvature LC
  10. greater curvature GC

Inside Structures of the Stomach

When the stomach is opened, you can identify these structures:
  • esophagus coming into the stomach
  • cardiac notch
  • fundus
  • body
  • gastric folds or rugae
  • angular notch
  • pylorus of stomach
  • pyloric sphincter
  • first part of the duodenum

Arteries of the Stomach

The arteries that supply the stomach are branches of the celiac trunk or artery. This is the first unpaired branch of the abdominal aorta, arising just after the aorta passes behind the diaphragm.
The branches of the celiac artery are three:
  1. left gastric
  2. splenic
  3. common hepatic

The branches to the stomach arise from the above:
  • celiac C
    • left gastric LG - supplies the lesser curvature of the stomach and lower esophagus
      • esophageal E
  • splenic S which gives rise to:
    • short gastric SG - supplies area of the fundus
    • left gastroepiploic LGE - supplies the left part of greater curvature of the stomach
  • common hepatic CH
    • gastroduodenal GD
      • right gastric RG - supplies right side of lesser curvature of the stomach
      • right gastroepiploic RGE - supplies the right part of the greater curvature of the stomach

Venous Drainage of the Stomach

The stomach drains either directly or indirectly into the portal vein as follows:
  • short gastric veins SGfrom the fundus to the splenic vein S
  • left gastroepiploic LGE along greater curvature to superior mesenteric vein SM
  • right gastroepiploic RGE from the right end of greater curvature to superior mesenteric vein SM
  • left gastric vein LG from the lesser curvature of the stomach to the portal vein PV
  • right gastric vein RG from the lesser curvature of the stomach to the portal vein PV

Lymphatic Drainage

All of the lymphatic vessels drain into nodes scattered along the arteries and named accordingly. The final group of nodes that receive lymph from the stomach is the preaortic (celiac) nodes located around the celiac trunk as it arises from the abdominal aorta.

Nerve supply of stomach

The stomach is supplied by both the parasympathetic and sympatethic parts of the autonomic nervous system.