Once you have identified the surface landmarks of the pectoral region, the next item to examine is the female breast. On the surface, one can see the nipple and area around the nipple, the areola. The areola becomes darkened after pregnancy so this coloration can tell you that a woman has been pregnant before.

The mammary gland is made up of superficial fascia, gland lobules, lactiferous ducts and lactiferous sinuses. There are 15 to 20 lobules, each with its own duct which empties through the nipple.

In order to see the internal structure of the breast or mammary gland, a sagittal section is made through the gland. When this is done you will see the following:


  1. clavicle
  2. superficial fascia
  3. glandular tissue
  4. lactiferous duct
  5. lactiferous sinus
  6. areola
  7. nipple
  8. rib
  9. intercostal muscles
  10. pleura
  11. pleural cavity
mammary gland

Surface Anatomy of Pectoral Region Muscles of Pectoral Region

Table of Contents for Upper Limb & Back