|After removing the skin from the anterior thigh, you can identify the cutaneous nerves and veins of the thigh and the fascia lata. The fascia lata is a dense layer of deep fascia surrounding the large muscles of the thigh. The great saphenous vein reaches the femoral vein by passing through a weakened part of this fascia called the fossa ovalis which has a sharp margin called the falciform margin.
Located high in the thigh, just below the inguinal ligament, are the superficial inguinal lymph nodes, usually arranged in a T-shape. These nodes receive lymph drainage from the entire lower limb and the superficial structures of the perineum.
The cutaneous nerves found piercing the deep fascia are the:
|The anterior compartment of the thigh contains a large muscle, consisting of four heads, the quadriceps femoris muscle. This is a strong extensor of the knee. The four heads of the quadriceps femoris muscle are the:
The thigh is completely surrounded by a dense layer of deep fascia called the fascia lata. This fascia is particularly thickened on the lateral aspect of the thigh and is named the iliotibial tract. This tract extends from the iliac crest to the lateral condyle of the tibia.
|The femoral triangle is an anatomical region of the upper thigh that has the following boundaries:
The floor of the triangle is made up of the:
The contents of the femoral triangle from lateral to medial are:
|The last three structures are found in a sheath of deep fascia that has extended down from the abdominal wall, the femoral sheath. The sheath contains the following items, from lateral to medial:
|The femoral artery (1) is the principal supply to the anterior compartment of the thigh, as well as the rest of the lower limb.
Its branches are:
The femoral artery changes its name to become the popliteal artery after it passes through the adductor hiatus.
|sartorius||anterior superior iliac spine||upper medial surface of tibial shaft||flexes, abducts, laterally rotates
thigh; flexes and medially
rotates leg at knee
|iliacus||iliac fossa||with psoas into lesser trochanter||flexes thigh; if thigh is fixed,
it flexes the trunk on the thigh
as in sitting up
|psoas major||12th thoracic vertebral body
transverse process, bodies and intervertebral
disks of lumbar vertebrae
|lesser trochanter||same as iliacus||segmental branches from lumbar plexus|
|pectineus||superior ramus of pubis||upper end shaft of femur||flexes and adducts thigh||femoral nerve|
|rectus femoris||straight head: anterior inferior iliac spine
reflected head: ilium just above the acetabulum
|patella||extension of leg||femoral nerve|
|vastus lateralis||upper end shaft of femur||quadriceps tendon into patella||extension of leg||femoral nerve|
|vastus medialis||upper end shaft of femur||quadriceps tendon to patella||extension of leg||femoral nerve|
|vastus intermedius||shaft of femur||quadriceps tendon to patella||extension of leg||femoral nerve|
|It helps sometimes to be able to examine a section of the body, in order to gain a third dimension to the region. Again, when examining a cross section through the body, you are looking up into the the section. This is the left leg so medial should be to your left as you examine it.|
|Bones of the Lower Limb||Medial Thigh|
Lower Limb Bones | Anterior Thigh | Medial Thigh | Gluteal Region | Posterior Thigh | Anterior Leg and Dorsal Foot | Lateral Leg | Posterior Leg | Sole of the Foot | Ankle | Joints of the Lower Limb | Summary of Items in the Lower Limb | Radiographs of the Lower Limb |Table of Muscles |
|This is copyrighted©1999 by Wesley Norman, PhD< DSc|